Psych

Science is a way of understanding the universe which rest on assumption and accumulations. In other words, science is one way of interpreting the world around us. In hopes to cure human infatuation and curiosity, philosophers created a science which studies the human mind, Psychology. Psychologist merely document mental functions and analyze personality and behavior answering the many questions we have about ourselves and the world around us.
Psychologist use a scientific approach to answer these many questions diverged within us. However, science relies on several assumptions, assumptions are given but not proven. Order is given to the universe, with some predictable pattern. Science is being skeptical, however, making sense of all accumulations and data. The purpose of science “Is to discover what things have a reliable pattern versus what things happen by chance.” Science uses an empirical approach, which states that, the only sources of knowledge comes through our senses, sight, hearing, tasting, etc. Thus, empiricism is the view that knowledge comes from, or is based upon experience. Empirical evidence refers to data collected through direct observation rather than faith or pure reason. This is what is meant when psychology is described as a “empirically based discipline.”
Science goes beyond the use of empiricism, but also employ, systematic empiricism. Observation is necessary in acquiring knowledge, however, in a more structured way to manipulate an increased understanding of the world. Empiricism becomes systematic when it is structured in such ways allowing us to learn. With any given observation, a systematic approach allows us to use a data base, relevant to the theory, so that they can support or refute the theory. First, we must state the purpose and draw up a hypothesis. Then, dispute this information into a theoretical experiment, one that is structured and appropriately tests the hypothesis. After experiments have been tested, we must…

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Psych

Kaplan University
PS124: Introduction to Psychology
Unit 4
August 27, 2013The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in the explicit behavior. Changes in the behavior are the result of an individual’s response to stimuli that occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as training a puppy, teaching a child how to walk, and getting good or bad grades. When a particular Stimulus-Response pattern is rewarded, that individual is conditioned to respond. The distinctive characteristic of Operant Conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviorism (Thorndike, Hull) is that the organism can emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to an external stimulus.
To understand positive/negative reinforcement/punishment each word must be defined precisely in its own way. Positive would mean the addition of an outside variable in correlation with a previous action, either positive or negative would be the removal of this variable. Reinforcement can be defined in rewarding or stimulating a specified behavior. Punishment would result in the action being taken to avoid a specific behavior.
Operant conditioning relies on the consequences of an exhibited behavior, and the impact the behavior has on certain learning experiences. This type of conditioning requires stimuli and reinforcers (both positive and negative) (Olsen & Hergenhahn, 2009). An example of Operant Conditioning is training a puppy how to use the bathroom outside. A positive of training a puppy is when he or she uses the bathroom outside they would get a treat. A negative of training a puppy could result in when he or she uses the bathroom inside and get locks up inside their cage with no treat. This is done because punishments or reinforcements are used to adapt or eliminate a specific behavior.
Positive punishment weakens a response by presenting something typically unpleasant after the response,…

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